Om kram krim kraum sah bhaumaya namah
Kuja * Angara *Ang-ari-ka
Bhauma * Bhumi
Mars * Ars
Ares * Simud * Bahram * Gugulanna * Nergal * Heru-deshet
Ang = to move
innate, primal force
vitality, kinesis, energy, urgos
Aryan * from Orion
Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece; a winged victory prepares to crown him with a wreath.
Side A from an Apulian red-figure calyx crater, 340 BC - 330 BC
Yuti descriptions also apply to effects of mutual drishti
Mars photo from NASA
| Regional names for Mangala
Ang (move) + Ari (fighters)
Mars juxtaposed to Terra (Malruth), composite by NASA
Assyria to Kutha (2 Kings 17:30)
"Mars has fierce eyes, a youthful appearance and generous disposition.
He has bile in his composition , and is exceedingly fickle.
He has a slender waist.
His limbs are fine and of a reddish hue .
He is energetic and lustful ,
and his tendencies are towards the quality of Thamas or darkness."
He who angers you controls you.
|~~ Origin of Species 1809-1892 Charles Darwin||"It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change."|
|~~ USA Civil Rights 1929-1968 Rev. Martin Luther King speaking in1967|| "The ultimate weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral, begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy. |
Instead of diminishing evil, it multiplies it."
"Mangala has blood-red eyes,
is fickle-minded, liberal, bilious, given to anger,
and has thin waist and thin physique."
|Vocabulary for Mangala |
2014 NASA tour poster
name of two plants:
a medicated oil in which turmeric and other vegetable substances have been boiled.
Pioneer, First-Arrived, Athlete
Blood, birth, bolt, chase, cut, drill, dive, drive, dig,
flesh, force, fight, first, heat, hunt, jump, jolt, kill,
mate, meat, move, muscle, mush
push, pummel, punch, plumb, race, rout, run,
swing, slice, sharp, smell, spear, sword, win
| Mangala * Ang- ari-ka |
roots of this
word = ang
ang"to move forward"
ari "to invade, to fight"
The Indo-European root related root 'anh' (choke, narrow, distressing) is historically different from the Indo-European root Ang (move, thrust)
[cf. English = anger, anxiety, anguish, angst, angina]
However despite different connotations, in speech they often sound the same.
| Vocabulary for Mangala
English "Win"QUOTATION from http://www.etymonline.com
fusion of O.E. winnan struggle for, work at, strive, fight, and gewinnan to gain or succeed by struggling, to win
both from P.Gmc. *wenwanan
Dhammapada , VIII
"The greatest of warriors
is one who conquers the Self."
"In the reptilian brain, problems aren't solved -- they're attacked."
|USA Chief Justice Anton Scalia the "originalist" quoted from his presentation at University of Chicago Law School, 2012|| |
"That reminds me of the story of the two guys who were out hunting, and a bear started chasing them.
They were running, and the bear was gaining fast.
One says "Why are we running? We can't outrun a bear."
And the other says "I don't have to outrun the bear, I only have to outrun you."
|~~ Saravali, Ch. 7-13|| |
Mars rules blood, copper, army, red cloth, minerals,
earth, king, destruction, swooning, bile and thieves.
~~ Mantreswara's Phaladeepika
"... fighting, battles, cooking, lands, gold, causing troubles to others, weapons, Adventure, association with wicked men, spying, or through theft..."
|Topics of Mangala:
Kuja Dosha "Mangalika"
Gochara Mangala descriptions, 12 bhava
Kuja's 4th - 8th drishti
"Manglik" - Kuja Dosha = Mars * Ars glances into the bhava of marriage, alliance, trust, treaty, agreement, balance
Chandra-yuti-Mangala Yoga = Moon + Mars-Ars
A special transit: gochara Mangala 234 days in Karkata
Blood and flesh, Skull, Head
Heat, combust ion, engines, life force
Enemies, Fighting, Warfare
Energy, action, power
Industry, manufacturing, machinery
Brothers, siblings, competition
Hunting , all varieties; Kuja = Agent of Pursuit
Pioneering, Primacy, Priority, Arriving First
Competition, Challenge, Combat
Newness, Novelty, Innovation, Invention
Domination, Strength, Athletic Prowess
| Tantra in Tibet by 14th Dalai Lama 1935- Policy of Kindness Tenzing Gyatso, Tsong-ka-pa and Jeffrey Hopkins, |
* Manjushri is the natural form of the wisdom of all Conquerors; one relies on him to increase wisdom in discriminating the truth. Tsong-ka-pa met Manjushri through Lama U-ma-pa.
"There was a painting of Manjushri on the wall of Tsong-ka-pa's Ga-wa-dong retreat,
and upon improvement of his meditation, a great light emitted from Manjushri's heart.
That was the first time Tsong-ka-pa saw Manjushri, and thereafter at his wish he met with Manjushri,*
who taught him the difficult points of the stages of the path.
Therefore, Tsong-ka-pa pays homage to the lowest part of Manjushri's body, his feet.
In ordinary refuge, once our temporary purpose has been satisfied,
we no longer need a source of refuge.
Here, Tsong-ka-pa takes refuge not for a trifling superficial purpose,
but for the ultimate purpose of attaining the fruit of complete liberation from suffering and the causes of suffering,
and, since this is not usually done in a few years or even in one lifetime,
he pays respectful homage in all his lifetimes.
This indicates that the path must be practised within the context of refuge from lifetime to lifetime
|List from Das||"Ability to organize, accidents, bleeding, disaster, actions of heroism, aggressive, ambitious, averse to control, bases, military, brothers, determined, enduring chemistry, chivalry, competition, combat, confidence, courage, daring enemies, energy, impulsive, impatient, engineers, precision, goal- oriented, hates opposition, inimical to idleness Jupiter regulates him, love for work, manliness, princes, passion, extravagance, police, army, fire, rescue, red things, self-confidence, self-employed, non-subordinate strength, muscles "|
Contemplate of Mangala with a red necklace,
dressed in red-coloured robes,
with four arms, carrying Shakti, Shoola, Gada (mace) and Vara
and mounted on a lamb.
Friend of = Ravi, Soma, Guru; Enemy of = Budha; Neutral =Zukra, Shani
Rashi of Mangala shows the environment in which one will act instinctively to Challenge, Pursue, Explore, Hunt, Fight or Compete
sexual imagery, blood and blood sport, flesh, heat and metals, engines, masculine imagery, Military, Police, athletics, animal instinct, Construction, Competition, Engineering, Surgery, Healing, Tantrik Arts, intense control, forcible or aggressive control (vs. Budha persuasion by logical argument or image presentation), war, aggression, Transformations, sudden changes, crisis, bold action, hunting, weapons, kinesthetic sense, massage, mining, invasion and penetration, detective work, psychiatry, death and rebirth, reddish-black things
| Career advantage = yang-energy Kuja
| Mangala in bhava-3, Mangala in bhava-4, and Mangala in bhava-7 measured from radical lagna, or from Chandra lagna) will cast a pro-active, competitive, and often aggressive
drishti upon professional bhava-10. |
Kuja possesses an abundant supply of physical movement energy that fuels sustained competitive action. Kuja drishti toward bhava-10 fuels the drive toward recognized performance in professional conquests.
Presuming that the Mangala mahadasha occurs during adulthood and that other more sophisticated graha are nicely coordinated with Kuja's primitive, self-directed"bullet" style of pursuit, the native enjoys a career advantage.
Mangala invigorates career activities which require"getting ahead" via physical vitality, direct movement, singular focus, sports and military culture, the company of young males, and dominating"alpha" instincts.
300 Combinations 1912-1998 Jyotishi BV Raman opines:
~~ B.V. Raman, Three Hundred Important Combinations .(10th ed., Delhi, 1991, 1947)."Malefics, Benefics, and Neutrals " p. 5
"Mars: He is benefic as:
Here we have taken into account the 'modified influence' due to the second lordship.
Thus if you take Sagittarius, Mars is benefic as ruler of a trine 5 and neutral as ruler of 12.
But his trinal lordship is so powerful as to overcome the 12th lordship so that he becomes a benefic.
Mars is neutral as ruler of 1 and 6 Scorpio
Mangala = Vitality and Revitalization; Start and Re-start; Birth and Rebirth
Kuja represents the life force energy which enlivens all sentient beings.
In His capacity as natural regulator of randhra bhava-8, Angrika can enforce numerous transformations of the container within any apparent fleshly lifetime for an individual vital being. These are not physical death-and-rebirth events but rather virtual rebirths.
Mangala is the natural regulator of bhava-8. bhava-8 determines conditions of death; however it is important to understand that death is a VITAL PROCESS and certainly not the"end" of anything.
Lightbody Lift-off is a point upon a cycle of continuous movement of vital energy from form to form which is directed by Mangala.
Mars from Codex de Sphaera c. 1469 CE
Mangala = a tendency to express competitive aggression or rash action via the part of the body indicated by the rashi or the nakshatra of Kuja. This body zone is typically more prone to receive injuries or suffer irritation. See Nakshatra Body Zones
Periods of Mangala often bring irritation to the indicated parts of the physical body.
If Kuja = rogesha-6 from Chandra, there can be an emergence of psycho-emotional mental health issues again associated with the representations of Mangala's rashi. However normally there is simply a period of disruption, irritation, and offensiveness
Naturally if Mangala occupies the radical lagna, effects on the physical body are more pronounced.
Physical Irritations = "Ang" effects of unbalanced Angarika
|Kuja = Agent of Pursuit|| |
Mangala represents the fiery animal nervous system chassis, a fundamental and inseparable component of the human experience. Kuja is instinctive , reactive, goal-focused, and alive!
Kuja is vigorous, vital, excited, direct and invasive .
Mangala is muscular and quick-trigger active. He indicates vigorous movement, dance, running, jumping, athletic competitions, and every type of physical sport.
Kuja = hunter , diver, builder, innovator, energy producer, agent of pursuit. In relationships, whether personal or professional, Zukra is the attractor and Mangala is the pursuer. Kuja's rashi, domain, and drishti give further details of the style and motive for His pursuit.
If one holds the conventional victim perspective of things happening "to" one, Mars-Ars periods can release so much anger that severe accidents are not out of the question. The possibility of really harming yourself -- or allowing another person to mirror your frustration so intensely that they harm you -- is adequate motivation to pursue a more conscious release for the anger!
If Mangala Mahadasha is anticipated, it is wise to study the psychology of projection, to avoid projecting one's own internal anger randomly into the environment, where it can be picked up unconsciously by another person and "returned to owner" with vigorous force!
Papagraha such as Mars-Ars, Saturan-Shani, and Professor Rahu whenfunctioning at full power can function as an empowered maraka graha.
An intelligent and reflective person will be aware of the volume of anger surging toward the top of one's psychic volcano.
Periods of Professor Mangala may signal the opening (often forceful) which creates Exit Permission. Mangala is creative and outgoing. His yang-energy patterns can stimulate inter-human or inter-species conflict and provoke the inherent violence of nature. Like any graha, Professor Mangala has a curriculum to teach, and His responsibility toward His students is to evoke subconscious patterns forcing them to rise into conscious action, at the scheduled time, so that the students can do what they came to Earth to do which is to learn about energy.
The graha are radio-transmitters which signal programming that facilitates the unfolding of patterns of material, emotional, and mental experiences.
Toward this purpose of facilitating the student's learning, one empowerment of the rays of the immediate graha of Earth's solar-system is to evoke other-life and earlier childhood unresolved psycho-emotional situations, and push those incompletely understood situation to a physical level --whether that be a combat fight or a caring touch -- with the purpose being to raise awareness of these forceful-movement patterns to the surface of consciousness.
The individual's own seed-beliefs in the form of memories can blossom on schedule in order to initiate the unfolding of a pattern of experience. The pattern can repeat an infinite number of occurrences until the student can demonstrate understanding. The universe is patient.
To speed the conclusion of the lessons which contain topics relating to the inherent violence (breakage) of nature and the awareness of conflict as a required phase of creative birth and movement, it is helpful to develop awareness of what is in that memory bank!
What are the expectations regarding competition, domination, championship, battle, birth, pioneering, invasion, engineering, explosion, drilling, innovation, fire, attack, sexual pursuit, dynamic energy, eruptions of force, and warriors? What is the expected role of brothers and worthy opponents?
The expectations can be examined safely in contemplative, reflective, meditative thought modes before the scheduled action occurs. Formal and informal meditation practice, journal-writing, engaged psychotherapy, conversations with friends, and many other awareness-evoking modalities can assist the acquisition of a mental preparedness for the unfolding of physical consequences.
The mechanics of experience are simply put (1) a seed of belief comes to sprout as a thought (2) the thought in the act of sprouting immediately magnetically attracts its matching emotion (3) the paired thought-emotion energize the forces of the material world, and a tangible experience is born (4) one may use intelligence (choosing) to react or to observe, or to combine reaction with witness-observer awareness in any proportion desired.
As the student develops a partial awareness of the inventory of stored memories which are being stimulated into physical birth and vigorous moving action according to the empowerments of the Mangala period of the Vimshottari Dasha schedule, the deep satisfaction of ownership and control over outcomes can be obtained. The student may observe the precise unfolding of one's own beliefs, expectations, hopes, wishes, desires, and needs into the field of perceptual reality. You, and only you, control this process.
Successful learning about the patterns of re-al-iz-at-ion (re - thing, realization = thing-making) depends upon how the person understands the bija-seed release process. All outcomes are determined by the seed-beliefs. The beliefs frame and limit the definition of what is possible. Fin = limit, fence; definition = setting limits. According to the expected limitations upon the unfoldment of Mangala energy, the materialization of a period of Professor Mangala may express sexual pursuit, alpha-male group domination, competitive exhilaration and championship, pioneering, engineering, innovation, or war, invasion, conflict and confrontation, violence, and battering.
All of these outcomes are possible within the scope of Professor Mangala's curriculum because all of these descriptions (and many more) are expressions of yang-energy outgoing force. The student is completely in control of their definitions, and thus the student is completely in control of their outcomes.
It is recommended to study the inventory of beliefs and definitions so as to be prepared to manage the Mangala bhukti to your creative satisfaction.
As the student peels back the layers of the thick blanket of un-knowing which has surrounded precious Earth for millennia, it becomes possible to gain conscious awareness of the memories of action, progress, and competition which are being stimulated by the Mars-Ars period.
Because one of Kuja's forceful abilities is transformative healing and sudden changes of identity, Professor Mangala's curriculum can evoke a massive tangible healing transformation. If the student carefully observes the seed-release process, what may seem to the reactive, un-knowing mind like a terrifying threat of annihilation may reveal itself to be at a deeper level a miraculous healing rebirth. Consciousness is the key.
Spiritually oriented students may be aware Kuja's surging, geo-thermal energy may be harnessed for purposes of tantric healing.
Naturally Kuja emits warrior patterns and thus the healing scenario is intended to have qualities of battering and warfare. Dynamic, forceful uprising of anger and aggression are stored in the subconscious inventory and utilized (consciously or unconsciously) within many lifetimes. So, even a normally placid personality can be expected to express anger occasionally under Mars-Ars influence. There may be initiating movements across sexual boundaries, or dominating acts of invasion of the physical, emotional, or mental planes of a perceived competitor.
Depending upon which two bhava He rules, Professor Mangala may stimulate aggressive behavior from relatives (3 or 8) co-workers (3 or 6) spouse-partners (7) religious figures or father-figures (9) or boss-figures or government officials (10) - to name only a few possibilities. The most conscious option is to perceive each attack as a unique expression of the student's underlying expectations.
Understand that the figures attacking you now - physically, mentally, financially, socially, legally, or emotionally - are those whom you have attacked in parallel lives.
The law of karma requires that in dualistic systems (such as Earth) when the student has completed the experience of one half of a duality, then the student is obligated to complete the experience of the other half of that duality. The purpose of karmic law is to ensure completion of all experiences before the final record of the experience is sealed. From a system perspective, karma (meaning required action, from the root kri) is a reasonable and beneficial requirement.
The victimization narrative which often accompanies an attack experience can be significantly minimized by the conscious student who is willing to accept responsibility without guilt.
There is no benefit to engaging in accusation, blame, grief, or guilt since these are acts based in the superstition that forces external to the self are capable of causing reality. All reality is caused by the intention of the self and no other cause.
The learning goal will be accomplished at the moment when the student understands that the attack is an expression of the system. It is not capable of harming the eternal self nor is any action capable of producing spiritual annihilation.
The self is never born and never dies. The opposite of death is birth. There is no opposite to Life. Life is beginningless. Therefore the successful student may have a experience of miraculous realization during any moment of unfoldment, realizing the system being demonstrated, realizing one's own intention operating the system, and merging at that moment with Source.
Mangala experiences involve dueling forces. Nevertheless the educational curriculum of Mangala provides exactly the same opportunity for enlightenment and self-realization as the educational curriculum of any other Graha.
If the student understands the karmic system and pursues the opportunity to experience the system-in-action, and accepts responsibility-without-guilt for the consequences of other-life actions, it will be possible to deal smoothly and smartly with others' anger which right now is directed straight at the student.
If the learner is able to psychically release inherited superstitious blaming behaviors then using the Mangala force as a fuel source, one's career can take a huge step up or other competitive situations may be met with the mind of a champion. When Mangala resides in His uttamasha Makara, or His swakshetra of Vrizchika or mulatrikona Meza, His dasha periods may be expected to generate competitive success. Similarly His dig-bala placement in karmasthana-10 or His drishti into 10 are highly energizing toward projects which require domination, innovation, or new birth.
Anger is a symptom of underlying fear - specifically, the fear of death. Again, understand the system. Life is eternal. Life has no limits. The essential quality of life is life. Therefore fear of death is simply an expression of un-knowing, of ignorance. The sincere student may apply knowledge of eternal nature to the problem of anger.
The Indo-European root ang indicates choking, seizing (angina). Anger is a completely natural short-term response to the threat of loss of life-force resource. Whether the loss of life-force means death of a fleshbody, a social position, an idea, or a relationship, the anger response is embedded in human consciousness as a reaction to the choking feeling of threat to life.
Often the most successful approach to anger is to accept that most beings-in-bodies have some degree of unconscious programming to re-invigorate when feeling drowned, choked, strangled, or suffocated. The will to survive-and-thrive is usually expressed as the urge to fight or mate. From the system perspective, anger is a very reasonable short-term response mechanism.
However it is natural and satisfying only as a brief experience to promote continuation of the life of the current embodiment. After the crisis passes, the need for the life-sustaining anger response also passes. Psychological and physical issues develop when anger is suppressed, retained, or covered under camouflage. Shani-influenced anger-maintenance can result in bitterness, resentment, and the diseases of suppressed anger. Therefore if anger outlives its immediate
Amplified animal-instinct Kuja unmitigated by other more sophisticated graha may result in aggression." Crimes of passion" .
Under influence of Mars the student will be shown a highly rewarding work path if the student has the inner peace and clarity to recognize that path. For many with a strong Mars so much energy is going into anger management that a low-to-medium awareness person could not possibly manifest more than neutral professional survival. Anger is self-imprisoning . There can be vicious arguments because Mars makes speech brutally honest - and often sarcastic or vulgar too.
Anger - Angst - Anxiety - Angina - Angaraka
As anger arises, take permission to heal, release, heal, release. Start screaming. Dance your brains out. Any heat-generating movement will give excellent release.
Ayurvedic treatment is great because of the hot oil massages, but if the student can't find a brilliant ayurvediki then homeopathic is good too. Standard homeopathic remedies for Rage include belladonna. However the homeopath (ideally only classic homeopathy) will ask for one's full lifestyle, and they might peel off the onion layers more slowly.
In the beginning, Mars-Ars mahadasha can be supremely frustrating. Unless the anger is acknowledged, Professor Mangala's curriculum can seem to generate a blockage interrupting career progress. This sort of blockage frustration is for conscious folks the darkness before the dawn.
True leaders will climb to higher leadership potency through higher awareness. During Mangala periods, the student is motivated to climb.
Warlike behaviors do increase in the beginning of the period. Human culture is transitioning out of the tribal framework but there is still war because not everyone is ready to release fear and anger. Another planet is presently being populated by those who need to continue the anger-culture. The new earth as it is sometimes called is populated primarily by those who have awareness of anger and can manage it rather than become the victim of it.
Wishing every success and deep peace in managing one's own anger so that the student gains strength and confidence to help others on the hard-and-bumpy road to understanding the system.
Mangala in Singha vital energies are brightly and dynamically unique. Often a mover and a shaker in the creative realms of speculative finance, politics, entertainment, gaming and gambling, performance arts, and haute couture.
Mangala-Karkata * nichha * Mangala is typically very direct, but in Karkata-nichha the movement tends to be indirect . Can be emotionally passive-aggressive with a tendency to pursue manipulative, sneaky, twisting or squeezing strategies as a means to reach the target. In extreme cases, extortion. Maximally challenging in Azlesa.
However Yogakaraka Mangala-Karkata in bhava-1 provides extraordinary benefits for society even while the native may have personality issues.
Mangala in swakshetra * the champion, the huntsman, the surgeon, and the deep miner. In Mesha, vigorously athletic, physically energized and competitive; pioneering and innovative in muscular movement. In Kita, psychologically or physically dominating, incisive, able to drill through surfaces; penetrating, and often intensely controlling. Swakshetra Mangala is a fountain of kinetic energy that may be found in the most demandingly competitive and exploratory situations.
Mangala-Meza * new birth, competitive movement, invention, innovation
Mangala-Vrizchika * forcing new identities for old containers, eruption, rebirth, diving into the depths, recycling,
Mangala in Rashi of Budha * due to the unfriendly relationship of Mangala with Budha, can be verbally aggressive. In Kanya, potential for sarcastic and critical style although painfully accurate. In Mithuna, verbally hyperactive. A vigorous conversationalist and often a gifted writer.
Mangala in Rashi of Vrihaspati * Kinetic, dynamic expressions of global humanism, theoretical principles, philosophical doctrine. Often a vigorous preacher, pro-active philosophical teacher or energetic reformer.Mangala-Dhanuzya
Mangala in Rashi of Zukra * instinctively pursues material wealth and sensual experience but also drives new bargains in context of new values. Energetic re-engineering of new agreements. In Vrishabha, emphasis on material wealth. In Thula, emphasis on contracts and agreements. Both are found in activities of diplomacy, deal-making, match-making, arbitration, negotiation, trading and bargaining.
Mangala in Rashi of Shani * Captains of industry climbing up the ladder of the social hierarchy (Makara) or social motivators moving briskly through the economic network or social community (Kumbha).
Mangala-Maraka * uttama
Use of Force is not a sign of strength
~~ 14th Dalai Lama Tenzing Gyatso . (1997). A Policy of Kindness:
A Policy of Kindness:An Anthology of Writings By and About the Dalai Lama
"If there are sound reasons or bases for the points you demand, then there is no need to use violence.
On the other hand, when there is no sound reason that concessions should be made to you but mainly your own desire, then reason cannot work and you have to rely on force.
Even in daily human contact, if we talk seriously, using reasons, there is no need to feel anger. We can argue the points. When we fail to prove with reason, then anger comes.
Therefore, anger is a sign of weakness."
| fashion the steel into a sword
* shamata *
The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra.
"The attainment of shamata is a serenely stilled state of mind, settled on mind itself. Although the attainment of such a meditational state focused on mind is the foundation for developing the highest attainments and is, of course, very excellent, by itself it is insufficient for reaching those goals.
When we achieve a mind focused on mind with the perfect placement of absorbed concentration, free from all faults of dullness or flightiness, we increasingly experience an element of bliss accompanying our meditation. When we experience serene joy, on both a physical and mental level, brought on by the force of total absorption of mind on mind, we achieve a meditational state that fulfills the definition of shamata.
Our ordinary mind is like raw iron ore that needs to be made into a steel sword. Progressing through the stages for attaining shamata is like forging the iron into steel. All the materials are there at our disposal. But since the mind wanders after external objects, then although it is the material for attaining shamata, it cannot yet be used as this product. We have to forge our mind through a meditational process. It is like putting the iron ore into fire.
To fashion the steel into a sword , or in this analogy to fashion the mind into an instrument that understands voidness, our serenely stilled and settled mind needs to come to decisive realization of voidness as its object. Without such a weapon of mind, we have no opponent with which to destroy the disturbing emotions and attitudes."
file update: 20-Nov-2018
Barbara Pijan Lama Jyotisha Vedic Astrology Surya Sun Chandra Moon Mangala Mars Budha Mercury Guru Jupiter Zukra Venus Shani Saturn Rahu Ketu Graha Planets Dasha Timeline Nakshatra Navamsha Marriage Children Wealth Career Spiritual Wisdom Cycles of Lightbody-liftoff Death and Rebirth
The information on barbarapijan.com , including all readings and reports, is provided for educational purposes only. Wishing you every happiness and continuing success in studies!
"The night is nearly over; the day is almost here.
So let us put aside the deeds of darkness and put on the armor of light."
~~ Epistle to the Romans 13:12